We tried Kali Linux on Crouton with Enlightment desktop, and got the same error. It turns out they changed dbus to use different options syntax, or something like that, and they're busy updating different desktops and distros to make them work. We discovered that only xfce4 is supported on Kali at this time. It may be different on Ubuntu. They say to try different desktops like LXDE.
The docs on Crouton could use some help.
What worked for us finally, today:
kiwi extension... Rats, I mean use crouton from the crosh shell to update the chroot with the -t xiwi,xfce4,extension options in that order. Presently, the options must be listed xiwi first, or it won't work.
sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -t xiwi,xfce,extension -u -n kali-rolling
The -n (name) is optional, in case you have more than one chroot. You can do this in the Chrome OS Developer (crosh) shell. Here's another weird thing we ran into. If the newly-installed Chrome OS Developer shell from the Google App Store pops up with a blank screen and refuses to work, it is probably already installed. Uninstall that one and access crosh with CTRL-Alt-t hotkey. Gee, it would be nice if this was more intuitive.
Next, get the crouton integration extension for the Chrome browser. The link to it does not, at this time, appear on the crouton install hints screen, and oddly did not come up in the web store, app store, or google searches. But it does appear on the Crouton GitHub Page under Prerequisites.
Finally, once everything is in order, try starting the desktop with the xiwi target.
sudo startxfce4 -t xiwi
That was the answer while this question/post was asked/posted.
So my question is "Is it right to refer Kali in answers? If not, which flag should be raised?" Since I am totally confused about which flag to be raised.