Contents

- 1 Can LSTM be used for forecasting?
- 2 How can I improve my LSTM performance?
- 3 How do I tune my LSTM model?
- 4 How does LSTM predict future values?
- 5 What is attention in LSTM?
- 6 Why is LSTM used for prediction?
- 7 Is LSTM a regression?
- 8 Do we need stationarity for LSTM?
- 9 How to forecast short time series with LSTM?
- 10 Is the LSTM model good at forecasting ADR?
- 11 When to normalize data before scaling with LSTM?
- 12 How many samples are used in a LSTM model?

## Can LSTM be used for forecasting?

LSTMs can be used to model univariate time series forecasting problems. These are problems comprised of a single series of observations and a model is required to learn from the series of past observations to predict the next value in the sequence.

## How can I improve my LSTM performance?

Data Preparation

- Transform the time series data so that it is stationary. Specifically, a lag=1 differencing to remove the increasing trend in the data.
- Transform the time series into a supervised learning problem.
- Transform the observations to have a specific scale.

## How do I tune my LSTM model?

Relevant Hyperparameters to tune:

- NUMBER OF NODES AND HIDDEN LAYERS. The layers between the input and output layers are called hidden layers.
- NUMBER OF UNITS IN A DENSE LAYER. Method: model.add(Dense(10, …
- DROPOUT. Method: model.add(LSTM(…,
- WEIGHT INITIALIZATION.
- DECAY RATE.
- ACTIVATION FUNCTION.
- LEARNING RATE.
- MOMENTUM.

## How does LSTM predict future values?

Predicting the future is easy… To predict tomorrow’s value, feed into the model the past n(look_back) days’ values and we get tomorrow’s value as output. To get the day after tomorrow’s value, feed-in past n-1 days’ values along with tomorrow’s value and the model output day after tomorrow’s value.

## What is attention in LSTM?

At both the encoder and decoder LSTM, one Attention layer (named “Attention gate”) has been used. So, while encoding or “reading” the image, only one part of the image gets focused on at each time step. And similarly, while writing, only a certain part of the image gets generated at that time-step.

## Why is LSTM used for prediction?

Using a Keras Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Model to Predict Stock Prices. LSTMs are very powerful in sequence prediction problems because they’re able to store past information. This is important in our case because the previous price of a stock is crucial in predicting its future price.

## Is LSTM a regression?

LSTM Network for Regression. We can phrase the problem as a regression problem. LSTMs are sensitive to the scale of the input data, specifically when the sigmoid (default) or tanh activation functions are used. It can be a good practice to rescale the data to the range of 0-to-1, also called normalizing.

## Do we need stationarity for LSTM?

In principle we do not need to check for stationarity nor correct for it when we are using an LSTM. However, if the data is stationary, it will help with better performance and make it easier for the neural network to learn.

## How to forecast short time series with LSTM?

This tutorial demonstrates a way to forecast a group of short time series with a type of a recurrent neural network called Long Short-Term memory (LSTM), using Microsoft’s open source Computational Network Toolkit (CNTK). In business, time series are often related, e.g. when considering product sales in regions.

## Is the LSTM model good at forecasting ADR?

With a mean ADR value of 69.99 across the validation set, the validation error is quite small in comparison (roughly 12% of the mean value), indicating that the model has done a good job at forecasting ADR values. Here is a plot of the forecasted versus actual ADR values across the training and validation set.

## When to normalize data before scaling with LSTM?

Scaling must be done after the data has been split into training, validation and test sets — with each being scaled separately. A common mistake when first using the LSTM (I made this mistake myself) is to first normalize the data before splitting the data.

## How many samples are used in a LSTM model?

74 samples are present in the training data, the model is operating on a time step of 1, and 1 feature is being used in the model, i.e. a lagged version of the time series. An LSTM model is defined as follows: An LSTM model is created with 4 neurons.