It's been closed as "too broad"... Because it is. It's like a normal software recommendation on steroids.
You might as well ask "What is all the software in the Ubuntu repositories and what does it do?"
The exception to something like this is if somebody:
- Set up a wiki page on wiki.ubuntu.com that documented the default applications and how they relate to Windows counterparts (or vice versa)
- Used an answer here to push somebody to that page.
- Rephrased the question to be more about how to find alternatives rather than asking for a list.