I saw comments on the question earlier that look like the person asking this is really trying to find the answer. It appears he has tried to figure it out himself, but is confused, so I'm inclined to take the time and try to answer it.
He has 5 numbered (and some of them have sub questions) questions.
I only feel qualified to answer 3 or 4 of the questions, and so have been holding off on trying to answer it. I'm considering just answering what I know and people can edit my answer with what I don't know, but the question is long enough that I think I might have to quote it just to keep the answers associated with their question.
Should this be split into multiple questions?